Recycling PET Bottles - avoidance of transferring bottles made from PET material to landfills for the purpose of recycling (recycling) for reuse of material, and reducing the amount of waste sent to landfills.
In many countries, PET plastics are encoded with a resin identification code with the number “1” in the universal recycling symbol, which is usually located at the bottom of a container or bottle.
PET is used as a raw material for the manufacture of packaging materials such as bottles and containers for packaging a wide range of food products and other consumer goods. Examples include soft drinks, alcoholic drinks, detergents, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products, and edible oils. PET is one of the most common and used consumer plastics.
An empty PET container after use by the consumer becomes PET waste. In some countries, PET waste is collected separately from other household waste. In addition, some regions of the United States (and other countries) have a “container deposit” (English Container deposit legislation) - a legal deposit, in the form of a cash deposit for the purchase of soft drinks and alcoholic beverages, juices, milk, water, and / or other containers at the point of sale of these goods. When the container is returned to an authorized redemption center (taromat) (or to the original seller in some jurisdictions), this deposit is fully or partially refunded after the bottle is returned.
In both cases, the PET containers collected after use in recycling centers are sorted and separated from other materials, such as metal, items made from other hard plastics (PVC, high density polyethylene, polypropylene, flexible plastics, such as those used for bags) (usually low density polyethylene)), drinking cardboard boxes, glass, and everything else that is not made of PET.
General principles for the processing of plastic containers at home
Plastic becomes plastic at temperatures from 180 ° C, so it can be used for processing at home. Preliminarily, the plastic is ground, and then the resulting mass is heated. It is impossible to heat up plastic at home, as it is sometimes advised - in the oven, to the state of such a liquid, it just becomes plastic, so any product can be easily formed from the preheated mass of crushed plastic, but there will be caverns in the craft.
Modern equipment for small business
Russian-language sites traditionally describe the processes of processing plastic bottles on domestic equipment, which requires more than two hundred square meters and about six hundred thousand rubles to be purchased to place it. Along with this, today there are a lot of equipment, small in size and very cheap at cost of production for the processing of plastic bottles at home.
Such equipment does not require a lot of space for placement, it is easy to rebuild it to change the manufactured goods, to do it yourself. Naturally, it will not make it possible to earn millions every month, but it will make a start-up for remaking plastic raw materials affordable for almost everyone and will serve as the foundation for the further development of such a business.
A complete plastic bottle recycling line includes:
Such a set of units will ensure complete recycling of plastic bottles.
This unit is intended for grinding plastic products. The resulting small plastic plates are called flex. Industrial manufactured devices are quite expensive.
For example, the simplest AMD-200D crusher, which processes about fifty kilograms of feedstock per hour, will cost about one hundred and thirty-five thousand ₽. And to make such an assembly with your own hands is not a big deal.
Those interested will benefit from the drawings:
If conditions allow and you can place a bath in the room for washing the resulting flex, a centrifuge for drying - you can limit it to its production. Today, according to Flagma, such material is sold from thirty-five to forty-nine rubles per kilogram, and bought from twenty to thirty-five rubles per kilogram.
This unit is designed for sintering fleks. The cost of the cheapest industrial designs is about two hundred thousand ₽. Therefore, it is not surprising that craftsmen make such units on their own. Of course, it is impossible to make such a unit from scratch without milling and turning. However, you can use the drawing and ask friends at the factory to make the necessary parts.
Many organizing the alteration of plastic bottles in garages and other utility rooms outside the area of attention of state bodies that monitor compliance with environmental health standards use existing electric furnaces as a working chamber of the sinter, as the flex starts to sinter at temperatures starting from 180˚C. The most popular agglomerators are Dave Hackens.
This unit is a device for producing finished products or granules that are subsequently used for processing. The augers feed the flexes into the chamber, where they heat up and become plastic, right down to liquefaction. Passing through the filter, the plastic is cleaned and passing through the extruder takes the form of threads. These threads can be used for various products, but can be cut and sold.
Dave Hackens offers home-made extruders that are combined with the press and allow you to get any product that matches the shape. In the unit, the flex warms up to an almost liquid state and is fed into the mold by pressure screws.
What can be done from PET bottles
For people with creative imagination, plastic bottles are an inexhaustible material for inspiration.
Strong plastic ropes can also be made from plastic bottles. To do this, you need a "bottle cutter". Craftsmen make this simple device from a blade, several washers, mounted on a wooden base.
When assembled, the bottle cutter looks like this.
The coils on which the threads obtained from PET bottles are wound can also be made from bottlenecks. First, the necks of the two bottles and the upper parts of the two caps are cut off. On the rod, the trimmed covers are fastened, onto which the trimmed neck is then screwed; in the neck, holes are made with a hot clove through which the beginning of the thread is passed and, tying the knot, fix it.
The resulting tapes can be used not only for the manufacture of ropes, but also to make tubes out of them. To do this, a strip cut from a plastic bottle is passed through the hole of the diameter necessary for the tube and heated, they begin to stretch through it. The principle of operation is clear from the photo.
It is possible that such a mini-business would be suitable for someone, requiring only a bottle cutter with reels and equipment, such as making brooms and brooms from plastic tapes. How to make such products can be easily understood from the picture.
Perhaps many people think the business of bottle tapes is very small, not worth attention. However, in India it is a serious business. Apply several vertically placed bottle cutters, cut strips are wound on coils that rotate from a mechanical drive. One worker sets the bottles on the bottle cutters and ties the resulting strips, the second worker controls the rotation speed of the coils on which the strips are wound, from which the ropes are subsequently produced.
Recently, in the southern countries, roofing tiles made by their PET bottles are becoming more and more popular. The molten flex is mixed with a mineral filler (fine sand fractions) and fills the molds through an extruder. In the countries of the former USSR, such a business is just beginning, so the field for the activities of craftsmen is quite wide.
Paving tiles, netting nets, walls of greenhouses and much, much more are also made from plastic bottles.
But, so that the entrepreneur does not decide to make such recyclables, success, as in any business, will depend on the literacy of the business plan. Such a document will not only allow to streamline knowledge, build a system of actions, but can be useful if you need to attract investment money.
Principles of writing a business plan
Like any other business plan for the organization and operation of an enterprise aimed at processing plastic bottles, other plastic products are drawn up in accordance with the requirements for such documents by the reviewing experts. This must be taken into account, because a business plan is prepared not so much for themselves as for those who will use it to allocate the money needed to turn ideas into practice. Financial professionals are the most picky. If they themselves do not know anything thoroughly, they will definitely turn to specialists to get an assessment of the proposed document. Therefore, the document to be created should be as appropriate as possible to the accepted standards, since, as they say, they are met for clothes.
Before writing, you need to clearly understand for yourself that a business plan, in fact, is just a written explanation of the proposed project, the amounts necessary for its implementation, as well as the optimal implementation time. Such an approach to business will immediately clarify what is important in it, what is secondary, what needs to be emphasized, and what should be moved to the background.
Information about the project of the future enterprise is divided into several sections:
- Section I. Title page. Here preamble information about the name of the enterprise, its form of ownership and address is placed, the name of the proposed project is placed, telephone numbers and email addresses are placed. The date of preparation of the document is indicated and information is provided on the need for calculating cash costs and profits, which are included in the document or placed in a separate application.
- Section II. This section containing copyright information is often referred to as the “Privacy Memorandum”. It sets out data on the authors of the business plan materials and their rights, obligations on non-disclosure of information received without copyright consent, as well as obligations to return the business plan after reviewing it if the decision on it is not positive.
- Section III. Often this section is called the "Summary". This section summarizes the entire business plan and reveals the essence of the project. This section is recommended to create after writing the entire business plan and arrange the information according to the following structure:
- project description
- ways and means of implementation,
- the answer to the question - what is the uniqueness of the project,
- required investment amount,
- projected earnings
- ways to return money to investors,
- the effectiveness of the proposed project.
- Section IV. Objective of the project. This section describes the purpose of the proposed business, describes the services or products delivered to the market, indicating the benefits that customers will receive. For this, the advantages of manufactured products are described in detail. If there is their uniqueness - the moment should be painted as thoroughly and extensively as possible. If the latest technologies are used, you need to indicate how copyright will be implemented.
- Section V. Market analysis in the field of the proposed business. It provides the results of marketing research on the products offered, as well as analyzes the activities of competitors. If, when writing a business plan, there is no uniqueness of the proposed business in this region, the emphasis is on reducing costs through the use of new technologies, reducing energy costs, personnel, and so on. Be sure to take into account that today there are practically no areas no longer covered by business, therefore, having found competitors, you need to justify what the proposed business is more attractive.
- Section VI. The position of the new enterprise in the industry. It describes the main characteristics of the enterprise and, based on their analysis, marks the place of the planned production or trade in the existing industry. The preferred form of ownership of the enterprise and what costs will have to be incurred to create it are indicated. The section also contains information about:
- company address
- the type of premises required, indicating whether it already exists or whether it needs to be purchased, whether it is necessary or not to make repairs,
- economic performance indicators
- temporal characteristics of the specifics of production activities.
If the business is planned to start from scratch, the presence or absence of experience in the field with the proposed management is indicated. Lack of managerial experience in the proposed field is a very negative characteristic, as a rule, it initiates the refusal of outside investors.
- Section VII. Product Description. The section is created after analysis of the existing market. Based on the analysis, a conclusion is drawn about the advantages of the proposed product and the competitive ability of the company. In this section, product samples or their photos, a description of the technical specifications must be present or attached to it. If several units of a product are produced, each of them is described in detail. Structurally, the section is divided into several subsections:
- product name, as well as its description,
- purpose and areas of use,
- competitive advantages,
- the presence or absence of copyright
- environmental friendliness of the product or its absence,
- quality certificates,
- service and maintenance.
- Section VIII. Sales of products. The section contains a marketing plan for the implementation of the manufactured product. Such a plan should include:
- market behavior patterns,
- well-reasoned explanation of the quantity of the purchased product by customers,
- describes the methods used to influence demand,
- describes the method of calculating prices,
- provides information on the methods of sale,
- The legal status of the main consumer is indicated.
Any material on organizing a business includes governing advice - find a consumer. This is exactly what the marketing plan is designed for. This structural unit is under close scrutiny, therefore, it is necessary to indicate in detail in it:
- what criteria for evaluating the product from the point of view of the consumer were studied when writing a business plan,
- what place in the supply chain is occupied by the customer to whom the goods are delivered.
This section is based on the characteristics that are evaluated by the product, not the manufacturer, but the consumer. It is highly advisable to provide an analysis of the assessment of a similar product by consumers of competitors and based on this information to justify the attractiveness of their own product. The logistic concept is included in the same section - how and to whom the goods are delivered, who is responsible for sending them. The strategy of advertising campaigns is given. The prices and volumes of sales for the time periods are indicated. Payback periods and profitability are calculated.
- Section IX. Production plan. Section material requires close attention and study, especially in cases of planning the opening of a company from scratch. In the section, the product production chains are written and analyzed in detail, the premises and the equipment located in it, its location, ways of transporting the source material, parts, finished products and so on are examined. It provides not only an exhaustive description of production, but also control over its processes, indicates what points will be entrusted to subcontractors, indicates the reasons for their choice. This section describes all production costs, and also calculates the cost of the product, provides an estimate of costs, indicates variable and fixed costs. Information is located following a certain structure:
- production structure
- technology used
- what rooms do they need
- the need for staff
- raw materials
- equipment specifications
- production capacity
- cost estimate
- subcontractor selection,
- cost analysis.
- Section X. Organizational plan. The section describes organizational issues, provides normative documents and describes how they will be implemented.
- Section XI. Financial planning. Information about required financial investments and their spending is placed here. It also sets out the timing of financial movements, the timing of the stages, determines the finances for working capital. It is also indicated if there is a need to attract loans and how they will be repaid. In this section, the conclusion of the above is an analysis of the effectiveness of the company and its work. Structurally, it looks like this:
- profit received
- tax payment structures
- need for investment
- loan servicing
- project effectiveness description
- Section XII. Risk analysis. В разделе размещается информация о трудностях, которые могут препятствовать осуществлению проекта, Сюда включаются сложности, провоцируемые законодательством, погодой, конкурентами и так далее.The more complete the list indicating the solutions to difficulties, the higher the assessment of the plan as a whole.
The wrong choice of employees is referred to the difficulties of doing business - success does not depend on the degree of acquaintance, but on professionalism.
To assess the degree of risk, the following analysis methods are used:
- statistical method (the basis is the study of named statistics),
- method of analogies - analysis based on the study of the development of similar projects,
- expert method, the basis of analysis is expert opinion,
- modeling - analyzes the response to external influences.
A description of possible risk management systems is also carried out, possible guarantees are called - authorities, guarantees for goods, bank guarantees and so on.
- Section XIII. Applications Documents not included in the planning description are collected here, but which are of importance, copies of contracts for similar goods, data sources, price lists, and so on.
Features and Benefits of Recycling
The vast majority of containers that we use for beverages and other liquids are made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET).
This material is easily recognizable, it has the following distinctive characteristics:
- Perfect transparency. The polyester packaging has excellent light transmission.
- Rigidity. Despite the very small wall thickness, the material does not deform.
- Ease. Products are lightweight compared to volume.
- Color. Classic colors: light blue, brown, green, transparent.
Please note that the covers and capping rings are made of another plastic - polyethylene or polypropylene.
In industry, PET waste is recycled. Polyester recycling technology is quite simple.
The main advantage is that polyethylene terephthalate has a very short melting zone.
That is, in order to melt it, it is necessary to apply minimal effort and a short heating time. It melts quickly and does not emit harmful and toxic substances.
In addition, PET quickly freezes in ordinary water, i.e. no special equipment is needed to cool it. And the most important advantage is that he practically does not lose his useful qualities.
Recycled PET Application:
- brushes and other fleecy products,
- threads for 3D printers and pens,
- fibers, ropes and threads,
- binder for abrasives, etc.
This is a very small list of recycled PET bottles.
Adaptation of processing to home conditions
There are no difficulties in recycling PET packaging waste.
But there is very important key stepsto be strictly observed:
- Sorting - the most important point. Plastic must be sorted by color, so the quality of the secondary material will be much higher. Covers, rings and labels must be completely removed.
- Prewash. If this is a container from under water, then this stage can be skipped. It is advisable to rinse the packaging from under dairy products and drinks from the inside. This can be done with running water.
- Shredding bottles. Rotary crushers with long sharp knives are ideal. Industrial equipment is very expensive, so home-made devices are suitable for the home. Design options are described below.
- Washing. Conventional container containers (basins, buckets, tanks) are suitable for washing bottles. For lightly soiled bottles, washing in plain warm water is sufficient. To remove food debris, you can use a three-stage washing: soaking in soda solution, washing with dishwashing detergent, rinsing in running water.
- Drying. You can use the oven. Drying temperature 100-120 ° C, time 2 hours. It is advisable to turn over crushed pieces periodically.
- Extrusion. Since it is supposed to use exclusively a home-made device (description below), manufacturing options are possible for either granules or a bundle or thread.
DIY recycling equipment
At home, you can do without some pieces of equipment and simplify technology as much as possible. But still, without a crusher and an extruder (granulator), work will be impossible.
On the Internet you can find a lot of advice on assembly and the necessary materials. Let's consider the most suitable and universal schemes.
The site has an article with a detailed description of the project "Crusher for plastic with your own hands."
For grinding PET it is better to choose a set of knives with different shapes of cloves. This will improve the quality of the crushed material.
Since polyethylene terephthalate quickly goes into a state of melt, it is worth considering the simplest unit schemes. The following will be required expendable materials:
- Metal drill for the largest diameter drill. It will be an impromptu auger. He will push the material to the exit, simultaneously helping the plastic melt faster.
- Scrap metal water pipe. In length, it should correspond to the drill. The diameter of the pipe should be chosen with a small gap.
- Gear motor. This is the most expensive part. If you can’t find a used option, then you should choose a new one with a rotation speed of 10 to 100 revolutions per minute.
- Heating element. For winding a metal part, a rod-shaped heater can be used.
- Thermal insulation material - a steel sheet for the manufacture of a loading hopper.
- As a forming part (die), a metal plug is made with a hole in the center.
For connecting a heater and control rotation of the electric motor is better to use the services of an experienced electronic engineer.
The extruder is easy to control. It is better to select the temperature experimentally, focusing on the initial range from 180 ° C.
Most often enough air is enough to cool the bundle of molten material, but sometimes additional cooling in water may be required.
For this the tow is placed in a rectangular bath with cooling water, which in the process can be changed as it is heated.
The finished tourniquet can be wound either manually, or the pulling rollers can be adapted for this (for example, from an old washing machine).
Secondary PET Application
Very interesting and economically viable is 3D filament manufacturing. This is especially true for those who constantly use these materials in their work.
PET is the material from which most of the currently sold three-dimensional printing threads are made. Can add dyes yourself to give the desired shade to the product.
In addition, you can make:
- fibers and rods for handicraft production of brushes and panicles,
- abrasive materials - for this, the abrasive is mixed with crushed material and fed into the extruder,
- twine or packing tape - By changing the hole in the die, you can give any shape to the finished product.
Alternative use of plastic bottles
PET bottles - great stuff for making garden sculptures. It does not decompose in sunlight and can last a long time. Design design can be chosen to your taste, everything is limited only by the flight of imagination.
The schemes of the practical use of plastic bottles are more interesting.
From transparent containers can build a greenhouse. To do this, use clean unpainted bottles with lids. After all, air is the best thermal insulation material. Empty containers are perfect for warming the foundation of the greenhouse design.
A very effective scheme may be heating such a greenhouse pyrolysis gases obtained by burning the same bottles. The scheme is promising, since the cost of the coolant will be minimal. Raw materials for heating literally garbage.
A separate article is devoted to the manufacture of various crafts and things from bottles. Also read what can be made of covers.
From this video you can find out how it looks and how it works homemade extruder for recycling plastic bottles:
Plastic bottles these days should not be considered only as waste. This article convincingly proves that even with minimal investment you can get economically interesting products.
Raw materials are garbage that literally lies underfoot. Empty plastic bottle can be recycled into a useful thingthat will gain a second life.