Useful Tips

Tip 1: How to Learn to Speak Deaf

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There are two main methods for creating a gesture name: descriptive and arbitrary. An arbitrary method consists in combining the first letter of the passport name (sometimes and / or last name) and one or more movements in the area of ​​the face or body: for example, a woman on Betty’s estate can be called a swaying gesture with her fingers folded in the sign of the finger alphabet “b” : four fingers are extended in a row, and the thumb is pressed to the middle of the palm. The descriptive method consists in choosing a gesture characteristic of a given person, for example, “curly hair” for a curly one, and the gesture can be either generally accepted, modified or reinvented: a gesture can be a characteristic movement by which a person straightens his hair or glasses. Another way to create a name is to select a "rhyming" gesture: Robert (born Robert) can get the name "rabbit" (born rabbit).

Signs differentiated by gender are found, the existence of characteristic places for performing gestures for names of women and men was shown in Amslena: female sign names are usually “pronounced” in the lower part of the face, and male ones in the upper part. At the same time, for example, in British sign language, such a division is extremely rare.

The content of the article

As you know, language learning always starts with theory. Therefore, in the first stages of learning the language of the deaf, you will need to acquire tutorials. With their help, you can learn the necessary theoretical foundations that are needed for language proficiency at a basic, that is, an elementary level. In the language of the deaf-mute, the basics are the alphabet and the actual words.

How to independently learn to speak the language of the deaf-mute?

If you want to learn how to speak sign language, you need to have a minimum vocabulary. In the language of the deaf-mute, almost any word can be expressed with a concrete gesture. Learn the most common words that people use in everyday life, and learn how to pronounce simple phrases.

Special online dictionaries are perfect for this purpose: the announcer shows a gesture that matches the word and the correct articulation. Similar dictionaries can be found on sites dedicated to learning sign language. But you can use the dictionaries of the book format. True, there you will see gestures only in pictures, and this is not such an obvious way to learn words.

To speak the language of the deaf-mute, you will also need to learn the dactyl alphabet. It consists of 33 gestures, each of which corresponds to a certain letter of the alphabet. In a conversation, they do not often use the fingerprint alphabet, but you still need to know it: letter gestures are used when pronouncing new words for which there are no special gestures, as well as for proper names (names, surnames, names of settlements, etc.).

As soon as you master the theoretical part, that is, learn the alphabet of the deaf and have a basic vocabulary, you will need to find a way to communicate with native speakers, with which you will train your speaking skills.

Where can I practice sign language?

It is important to understand that learning to speak the language of the deaf-mute without practice is an impossible task. Only in the process of real communication can you master conversational skills at such a level that you understand the sign language well and be able to explain it.
So, where can one speak with native speakers of the deaf-mute? First of all, these are all kinds of online resources: social networks, thematic forums and specialized sites, the audience of which are hearing-impaired or deaf people. Modern means of communication will allow you to fully communicate with native speakers without leaving your home.

You can go on a more complex, but at the same time more efficient way. Find out if there are specialized schools for the deaf in your city or any other community of hard of hearing and deaf people. Of course, a hearing person will not succeed in becoming a full member of such an organization. But this is possible if you learn the language of the deaf-mute not for pleasure, but in order to communicate with someone close to you. In addition, you can sign up as a volunteer in a boarding school for deaf children. There you will completely immerse yourself in the language environment, as you can really closely communicate with native speakers of sign language. But at the same time doing good deeds - as a rule, volunteers in such institutions are always needed.

Deaf and dumb communication with each other

Deaf people use two types of sign systems - fingerprint and sign language.

The fingerprint alphabet is a system of manual signs corresponding to letters. A hand clenched into a fist denotes the letter "a", a palm with straightened, clenched fingers and a large set aside - "c", etc. Such ABCs vary from language to language. In some countries (for example, in the UK) they are dactylated with two hands.

The Russian dactyl alphabet assumes dactylation with one hand (the right one is more often used, but this does not matter). The arm is bent at the elbow, the hand is in front of the chest.

In sign language, gestures do not indicate individual letters or sounds, but whole words and concepts. There are sign languages ​​that are formed specifically in the communication of deaf people, which differ in structure from verbal languages, and fake sign language that reproduces the structure of verbal. This is a kind of "bridge" between the language of the deaf and the language of hearing.

Usually deaf-mute people use sign language as primary, and dactyl as secondary, denoting names, special terms, in a word, all that for which there are no conceptual gestures.

Deaf and hearing

A deaf and dumb person does not live in isolation from the "world of hearing", and such children are prepared for integration into this "world" even before entering kindergarten.

Deafness is extremely rare. In most cases, a person has a residual hearing that works at certain frequencies and at a very high volume. Such people use heavy-duty hearing aids. In this case, it is impossible to fully hear, but a person still receives a certain amount of auditory information. During classes, the child puts on headphones with powerful sound amplification.

Deaf teachers (teachers and educators working with deaf children) use all available “information channels” to “reach out” to the child’s brain. Children are taught to read early. In specialized kindergartens, all actions are accompanied by a demonstration of plates with words and phrases. Having arrived at the kindergarten, the child should take the "Hello" sign, and leaving - "Bye", after eating - "Thank you", etc. Demonstration of plates is combined with gestures, fingerprinting. Teaching a child the dactyl alphabet, the teacher teaches him to fold his lips according to the letters, puts his hand to his cheeks, throat or nose, so that the child can feel the vibration.

Thanks to such efforts, most children manage to develop to a certain extent even sound speech. They say such people are slurred, their speech differs in timbre, but you can understand them if you wish. Such people can read lips, which allows them to understand the hearing. When communicating with a deaf or hard of hearing person, you should not turn away or cover your mouth with your hand.

But still, communication between deaf and dumb people with hearing remains difficult. In everyday life, such people usually use notes. In some cases, deaf-mute people are helped by sign language interpreters. The need for their services arises when the deaf go to the doctor, give evidence to the police or the court, deal with officials. Currently, there are even Orthodox churches where services are held with the participation of a sign language interpreter. Unfortunately, the number of sign language interpreters in the Russian Federation is small: there are only three sign language interpreters per 1000 deaf people. The solution to this problem is a matter for the future.

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