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Fever: stages, symptoms, causes, treatment


(malaria) - appears mainly in places of marshy. Many countries are known for having swamp fever endemic in them. In Europe, these areas are located in Italy, Greece, Hungary, mainly along the banks of large rivers and lakes, such as the Danube, the Vistula, etc. In Russia, B. fever is most common in the Caucasus, Crimea, Bessarabia, along the Volga River. Kazan, etc. In general, conditions for the development of swamp fevers exist wherever, in the words of Dr. Toropov, it is green, damp and warm. The drainage of swamps often leads to the destruction of B. l., As can be seen, for example, in London, where they do not currently exist. B. fever often appears in desolate spaces, on ships, in prisons, etc. In addition to swamps, for the development of B. fever the following conditions are also necessary: ​​a known temperature (13 ° - 14 ° R.), season: in winter B. fever develops least of all, in summer - most of all, and finally, the lower microorganisms described by Dr. Yakubovich. B.'s diseases by a fever meet both endemic, and epidemic, pandemic and sporadic, at the same time all the above conditions influence the very spread of the disease. Once endured this disease becomes predisposed to it, on the basis of exhaustion, poverty and suffering B. l., Like any other disease, develops much more often. Pure form B. l. usually affects the patient without any precursors: there is a sudden attack of chills, lasting usually from ¼ to 6 hours. Chills are extremely strong, and there is severe pain in the head, in all limbs, yawning, goose bumps, etc. The pulse is significantly increased, the body temperature rises sharply to 40 °, 41 °, and even sometimes to 42 ° (normal temperature 37 °). The heat period lasts for a more or less long time, and then a sharp drop in body temperature occurs and a profuse sweat appears on the patient's entire body. The whole described attack of B. fever can last a day. However, this does not always end, however: in some cases, seizures are repeated daily, in others - after 2, 3, and even 4 days. In the first case, we have daily uniform B. fever (febris quotidiana), in others - we have a three-day, four-day form of B. fever, etc. (febris tertiana, quartana). Sometimes there are 2 seizures daily, and such a double febrile form of B. fever is known in science under the name febris quotidiana duplex. The intervals between seizures are known in science under the name apyrexia. In addition to the above forms of B. fever, there are also so-called latent forms that are far from expressed in the typical picture that is described above. Hidden forms are expressed exclusively by disorders in the nervous sphere, the appearance of various kinds of pains in the nerve branches, for example, pain of the infraorbital branch, pain in the sciatic nerve, etc., and the temperature of the nerve is not elevated. If these pains occur in a subject living in a marshland or who came from such, it is necessary to examine the spleen, most often in such cases, enlarged. Then it is necessary to treat these neuralgia exclusively with quinine, like an ordinary swamp fever, and quinine in this case can also serve as an excellent diagnostic tool: if the pain from quinine disappears, therefore, there is a case of latent B. fever. Ordinary forms of neuralgia are not inferior to quinine treatment. Typhoid fever can exist alongside swamp fevers, the course of which in the swampy areas is completely wrong.

After swamp fevers, patients develop the so-called marsh leanness: the skin of the face becomes pale, sluggish muscles, flabby, lack of appetite, poor digestion, the heart works sluggishly, venous congestion, swelling of the arms, legs, face, etc. are observed. The patient becomes apathetic, sluggish, unable to neither physical nor mental to work. Such types of B. thinness are extremely common in marshy areas, which, of course, leads to the physical and mental degeneration of the population. Prevention of this disease consists in draining the swamps, in choosing the place of the population, in evicting the inhabitants to the mountains in the event of the occurrence of swamp fevers. In addition, it is necessary to avoid night work, dampness, overwork, etc. The treatment of this disease should have the goal: 1) to prevent swamp fever from developing to the extent of mild leanness and 2) treatment of the attack itself. In the first case, the patient must be evicted to another, healthier area. In the second case, it is necessary to resort to large doses of quinine, which is still the only and indispensable tool against attacks of swamp fever.

Definition of a medical term

Nonspecific pathological processes characterized by a temporary increase in body temperature due to the dynamic adjustment of the thermoregulatory system under the influence of pyrogens (i.e., elements that cause heat) are called fever. In medicine, it is believed that such a condition arose as a protective and adaptive reaction of a person or animal to an infection. It should also be noted that a fever, the stages of which will be listed below, is accompanied not only by an increase in body temperature, but also by other phenomena characteristic of an infectious disease.

The essence of febrile syndrome

It is no secret to anyone that many infectious and viral diseases are accompanied by a rise in the patient's body temperature. Moreover, earlier all diseases that proceeded in this way were called fever. However, experts argue that in the modern scientific understanding, such a condition is not a disease. But, despite this, the term is still present in some names of nosological units (for example, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Pappatachi fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, etc.).

Why does the temperature rise with certain diseases? The essence of the fever is that the thermoregulatory apparatus of humans and higher homeothermic animals responds to specific substances called pyrogens. As a result of this, a temporary shift of the homeostasis (temperature) setting point to a higher level occurs. In this case, the mechanisms of thermoregulation are maintained. This is the fundamental difference between hyperthermia and fever.

Causes of fever

Why does a person or animal rise in temperature? There are a lot of reasons for the development of fever. However, the most common are the following:

  1. Microbes, infectious pathogenic viruses, parasites. Their waste products and components are pyrogen-chemical substances that act on the center of thermoregulation.
  2. Non-infectious causes. Among them, exogenous proteins are isolated: vaccines, serums, snake venom, transfused blood, and so on. This also includes the living organism’s own proteins, which have changed their properties as a result of burns, trauma, tumor decay, and hemorrhage in the tissue.

Other causes of febrile syndrome

Why does a fever occur? A disease that provokes an increase in body temperature can be associated with a heat transfer disorder in case of impaired vegetative work in adolescents, children and young women (that is, thermoneurosis). Also, fever can occur under the influence of the following factors:

  • Taking some medications. Experts say that a number of medications can affect the center of thermoregulation, causing a slight increase in body temperature.
  • Hereditary violation in the process of thermoregulation. For example, some completely healthy babies are already born with a temperature of 37.2-37.4 degrees. For them, this condition is the norm.
  • Subfebrile temperature often occurs due to overheating, regular physical exertion, being in a stuffy room and intense heat.
  • Emotional overstrain and stressful situations are often accompanied by increased heat production and activation of the hypothalamus, which contributes to the onset of fever.
  • An increase in the hormone progesterone in pregnant women also causes a slight increase in temperature. However, other signs of a viral or infectious disease are completely absent. This condition can be maintained until the end of the first trimester. However, some women are subfebrile temperature accompanies almost the entire pregnancy.

What are pyrogens?

As mentioned above, infectious and viral diseases very often contribute to fever. This happens under the influence of pyrogens. It is these substances that enter the body from the outside or that form directly inside, cause fever. Most often, exogenous pyrogens are elements of infectious pathogens. The most powerful of them are thermostable capsule lipopolysaccharides of bacteria (gram-negative). Such substances act indirectly. They contribute to the shift of the installation point in the thermoregulatory center of the hypothalamus. Most of them are of leukocyte origin, which directly affects other important symptoms of the disease. The source of pyrogens are cells of the human immune system, as well as granulocytes.

Fever: stages

In the process of development, fever goes through three main stages. On the first - a person’s temperature rises, on the second - it is held for some time, and on the third - it gradually decreases, reaching the initial one. We will talk about how such pathological processes occur, and what symptoms are inherent in them.

Temperature rise

The first stage of fever is associated with the restructuring of thermoregulation, as a result of which heat production begins to significantly exceed heat transfer. Limitation of the latter occurs due to a decrease in the influx of warm blood into the tissue and the narrowing of blood vessels on the periphery. Of greater importance in this process is spasm of the skin vessels, as well as the cessation of sweating under the influence of the sympathetic nervous system. The signs of fever in the first stage are as follows: pallor of the skin and lowering of its temperature, as well as the limitation of heat transfer due to radiation. Reducing the formation of sweat does not allow heat to escape through evaporation.

The contraction of muscle tissue leads to the manifestation of the phenomenon of "goosebumps" in humans and ruffling of hair in animals. The subjective feeling of chills is associated with a decrease in skin temperature, as well as irritation of cold thermoreceptors located on the integument. From them, the signal enters the hypothalamus, which is an integrative center of thermoregulation. After that, he informs the cerebral cortex about the situation where human behavior is formed: he begins to wrap himself up, take appropriate postures, etc. A decrease in the temperature of the skin can also explain muscle tremors. It is caused by activation of the center of tremor, which is localized in the medulla oblongata and midbrain.

Temperature retention

The second stage of fever begins after reaching the set point. It can occur for several hours or days, and can also be long. At the same time, heat transfer and heat production balance each other. A further increase in body temperature does not occur.

The skin vessels in the second stage expand. Their pallor also goes away. In this case, the integument becomes hot to the touch, and chills and trembling disappear. A person at this stage experiences a fever. In this state, the daily temperature fluctuations are preserved, but their amplitude is quite sharply higher than normal.

Depending on the degree of rise in body temperature, fever in the second stage is divided into species:

  • subfebrile temperature - up to 38 degrees,
  • mild fever - up to 38.5,
  • febrile or moderate - up to 39 degrees,
  • pyretic or high temperature - up to 41,
  • hyperpyretic or excessive - over 41 degrees.

It should be noted that hyperpyretic fever is extremely dangerous for human life, especially for young children.

Causes of fever

Pyrogens are substances of a protein nature (microbes, serums, vaccines and other foreign proteins). They can also form in the body itself, for example, tissue breakdown products during trauma, burns, and extensive hemorrhages.

Pyrogens affect the excitability of thermoregulation centers, which leads to an increase in body temperature. This stimulates the body's defenses. Often, fever is detrimental to pathogens. All this allows us to evaluate the fever as a reaction that is beneficial for the body. But in some cases, a fever can adversely affect the nervous system, cause delirium, hallucinations.
Fever can accompany both infectious and noncommunicable diseases.

There are 3 stages in the development of a febrile reaction: a rise in temperature, its relative constancy at an elevated level, and a drop in temperature.

The graph of the rise and fall of temperature is often of great diagnostic value.
For example:

  • for malaria, a sharp rise in body temperature and a similar sharp drop in it at strictly defined time intervals are typical,
  • with sepsis, there are sharp fluctuations in body temperature (from 35 to 41 °) during the day,
  • with pneumonia, typhoid fever, body temperature, rising to 39-40 ° C, keeps at this level for a certain time,
  • with acute purulent diseases, sharp fluctuations in body temperature (within 2-3 ° C) are also noted, but it does not fall to normal values.

Temperature drop

A decrease in body temperature can be sharp or gradual. This stage of fever begins after the supply of pyrogens is exhausted or their formation ceases under the influence of natural or medicinal factors. When the temperature drops, the set point reaches a normal level. This leads to vasodilation on the skin. In this case, excess heat begins to gradually be removed. A person experiences profuse sweating, perspiration and diuresis are enhanced. The heat transfer in the third stage of fever sharply exceeds the heat production.

Types of Fever

Depending on the changes in the daily temperature of the patient’s body, fever is divided into several types:

  • Constant is a long-term and steady increase in temperature, the daily fluctuations of which do not exceed 1 degree.
  • Remitting - noticeable daily changes can be in the range of 1.5-2 degrees. In this case, the temperature does not reach normal numbers.
  • Intermittent - such a pathology is characterized by a rapid and significant rise in temperature. It lasts for several hours, after which it is replaced by a fairly rapid drop to normal values.
  • Exhausting or hectic - with this type of daily fluctuations can reach 3-5 degrees. In this case, the ups with a rapid decline are repeated several times throughout the day.
  • Perverse - such a fever is characterized by a change in the circadian rhythm with high rises in the morning.
  • Wrong - characterized by fluctuations in body temperature during the day without a certain pattern.
  • Return - with this type, periods of increasing body temperature alternate with periods of normal values, which lasts for several days.

It should also be noted that the temperature - 35 degrees - does not contribute to the onset of fever. To find out the causes of this condition, you should consult a doctor.

Common symptoms of fever

Low temperature (35 degrees) does not cause fever, since it is characterized by a rise of more than 37 degrees. Common signs of such a pathological condition are:

  • feeling of thirst
  • facial redness
  • rapid breathing
  • bone aches, headache, unmotivated good mood,
  • poor appetite
  • chills, trembling, intense sweating,
  • delirium (delirium) and confusion, especially in elderly patients,
  • irritability and crying in children.

It should also be noted that sometimes a rise in temperature can be accompanied by swelling and pain in the joints, a rash and the appearance of blisters of a dark red color. In this case, you should immediately contact a doctor.

How to get rid of a condition such as fever, the stages of which were listed above? To begin with, the doctor must establish the cause of the rise in body temperature, and then prescribe the appropriate therapy. If required, the doctor may send the patient for additional examination. If a serious pathology is suspected, the specialist recommends hospitalization to the patient. Also, to eliminate fever, the patient is advised to observe bed rest. It is forbidden to dress too warm.

The patient needs to drink plenty of fluids. As for food, he is shown light and easily digestible food. Body temperature should be measured every 4-6 hours. If necessary, you can take an antipyretic. But this is only if the patient has a headache and a temperature of more than 38 degrees is observed. To improve the condition, the patient is recommended to use "Paracetamol". Before taking this medication, you must carefully study the instructions. Если лихорадка наблюдается у ребёнка, то ему запрещается давать ацетилсалициловую кислоту. Это связано с тем, что такой препарат может вызывать развитие синдрома Рейе. Это крайне тяжёлое состояние, приводящее к коме или даже к летальному исходу. Вместо этого, малышам для снятия жара рекомендуют медикаменты на основе парацетамола: «Эффералган», «Панадол», «Калпол» и «Тайленол».

Народные средства лечения малярии

Принимать только один раз утром при восходе солнца. Так принимать 5 дней подряд. Then 2 days to rest, after which 2 days again to take at sunrise. Having accepted the hin, you must fall asleep, that is, continue the dream. This is the main condition. After 10 days, the person is healthy.

Once a day, take the gallbladder from tench fish. Drink with water. You can use dry bile. After 3 days, the disease will pass.

3. Parsley (greens).

Pass 2.5 kg of parsley (without roots) through a meat grinder, squeeze the juice. Pour 150 g of vodka into the squeezed juice, mix. Take 100 g in the morning on an empty stomach and a second time in the evening before bedtime, also 100 g. The third time to drink 100 g the next morning, everything will pass.

Cut willow bark. A pinch (teaspoon) of bark in 1.5 cups of water. Boil over low heat until 1 cup is left. Take in the morning on an empty stomach like tea with honey, as the broth is bitter. Take until complete recovery.

Clean the middle head from the upper skin, and leave the pink film adjacent to the cloves. Crush the garlic. Pour a glass of cold water (boiled). Insist 12 hours. Take 3-4 sips in bed at the beginning of an attack, take good shelter. Drink the whole glass in a day. Take within 4-5 days.

6. Tripol. The three-leaf watch.

a) Grind 100 g of fresh trifoli with flowers and plant roots, put in a liter bottle, pour vodka. Insist 14 days in a dark cupboard. Take 100 g during an attack and take cover in bed. It is believed that after 3 receptions attacks will stop.

b) 1 teaspoon of dried leaves of tripoli in a glass of boiling water. Insist, wrapped, 1.5 hours, strain. Take 1 / 3-1 / 2 cup 3 times a day 20 minutes before meals.

25 g of hop cones in 2 cups boiling water. Insist, wrapped, 1.5 hours, strain. Take 50 g during an attack, another 50 g in the evening, the next day also take 50 g in the morning and evening, even if there was no attack. Take 3 days, lying in bed, and after taking it is good to take cover. People believe that seizures pass quickly. Within 2-3 days there will be some heaviness in the head, which soon passes.

20 fresh sticky sheets brew 1 cup boiling water. Insist, wrapped, 1.5 hours, strain. Take 100 g 2 times a day, in the morning on an empty stomach one hour before meals and in the evening at night after eating in bed. Take 10 days. It is believed that the most chronic malaria and fever will pass. You can take 3 times a day, 100 g before meals.

The second option. Pour 100 g of fresh young leaves of lilac into a bottle, pour 1 liter of vodka. Insist. In a dark cupboard for 14 days. Take 1 teaspoon before the attack, the next day 1 teaspoon during the attack, on the third day, 1 teaspoon after the attack. Malaria and fever will pass irrevocably. The medicine is bitter. Persists for a long time. You can take 5 drops 3 times a day.

The third option. Rinse 20 pieces of fresh green leaves of lilac and put in a liter bottle. There is 2 g of fresh bitter wormwood, adding 1 g of equalizer oil. Pour a liter of vodka. Insist 14 days in a dark cupboard. Take 1 small glass before an attack of malaria once a day. If the disease does not respond, then take a glass 2-3 times a day before meals.

Types of fever

According to the degree of rise in body temperature, fever is distinguished:

  • subfebrile (not higher than 38 °), moderate or febrile (within 38-39 ° C),
  • high, or pyrethic (39-41 °),
  • hyperpyretic, or excessive (above 41 °).

Artificially lowering the temperature is impractical, and sometimes even harmful. Treatment is prescribed by a doctor, and it is aimed at eliminating the main cause of the disease, and the temperature will also decrease.

Fever treatment

Recipes of traditional medicine to facilitate the course and treatment of febrile conditions:

1. Corn oil.
Daily intake of 1 tbsp. l corn oil for food helps to get rid of fever for a month.

3. Infusion of nettles.
1 tbsp. l dry crushed leaves of nettle dioica, brew 200 ml of boiling water, leave warm for 1 hour and strain.
Take 1 tbsp. l 3-4 times a day before meals.

14. A decoction of kirkazona.
1 tbsp. l chopped herb kirkazona lomonosovidny (febrile grass, milk thistle) pour 200 ml of cold water, bring to a boil and boil for 5 minutes, insist 30 minutes, strain.
Drink 50 ml 4 times a day.

22. Tincture of lilac.
Dry lilac flowers ordinary pour vodka in the ratio of 1:10, insist 14 days in a tightly closed vessel.
Take - 1 tsp. before the attack, the next day - 1 tsp. during the attack, on the third day - 1 tsp. after the attack. The fever passes irrevocably.

27. Pomegranate juice.
When fever is recommended to drink 3-4 times a day, 100 ml of pomegranate juice diluted with water (1: 1).